Marsha A RaebelMarsha A. Raebel, PharmD, BCPS, FCCP

Marsha A. Raebel, PharmD, BCPS, FCCP, is an investigator in Pharmacotherapy at the Institute for Health Research. Dr. Raebel's research is in patient safety and pharmacoepidemiology, specifically focusing on reducing medication and laboratory monitoring errors in the outpatient setting and on adverse drug event surveillance. She is the coordinating investigator across Kaiser Permanente for the FDA Mini-Sentinel initiative, is a collaborating investigator in the HMO Research Network (HMORN) 
C
enter for Education and Research in Therapeutics (CERTs), an investigator in the FDA-sponsored 
Medication Exposure in Pregnancy Risk Evaluation Program (MEPREP), and an investigator in both theSUrveillance, PREvention and Management of Diabetes Mellitus (SUPREME-DM) and the Scalable 
PArtnering Network (SPAN) for Comparative Effectiveness Research programs.

Institute for Health Research
10065 E. Harvard Ave Suite 300
Denver, CO 80231
marsha.a.raebel @ kp.org

Research

CURRENT

Efforts to Develop the Sentinel Initiative
The Sentinel System will be a national electronic active surveillance system that greatly enhances the ability of the FDA to track the safety of FDA-regulated drugs, biologics, and medical devices. The pilot program, known as Mini-Sentinel, is the Agency’s first step towards building this nationwide rapid-response electronic safety surveillance system.
Funder: United States Food and Drug Administration

Multi-Institutional Consortium for CER in Diabetes Treatment and Prevention (PROSPECT; SUPREME-DM)
In this “next-generation” multi-system registry we are proposing, it is intended to serve     as a resource for a wide range of CER on both individual therapies and system-level interventions, and specifically to support examination of heterogeneity in effectiveness across patient subgroups defined by race/ethnicity, age, co-morbidities, or psychosocial variables, and across systems.
Funder: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality

Scalable PArtnering Network for CER: Across Lifespan, Conditions and Settings (SPAN)

The objective is to develop a distributed research network that is interoperable across a range of health care systems and sites, incorporating large and diverse patient populations.  The network infrastructure will have the capability to conduct large comparative effectiveness research (CER) studies using data collected on patient-reported outcomes collected at the point of care and real-time data collection.
Funder: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality

Medication Use in Pregnancy and Birth Outcomes Program (MEPREP): Systemic sulfonamide use during pregnancy and the risk of selected congenital anomalies

In this project we will measure the association between exposure to sulfonamides during pregnancy and congenital abnormalities in the offspring, maintain all data, data linkages, standardized datasets, and organizational structure, created in the MEPREP pilot program, and evaluate the efficiency of conducting in-depth epidemiological studies using the data, data linkages, standardized datasets, and organizational structure created by the MEPREP pilot program.
Funder: United States Food and Drug Administration

Mental Health Research Network: A Population Based Approach to Transform Research
The major goal of this project is to develop a Mental Health Research Network (MHRN) including nine established public-domain research centers based in integrated not-for-profit health systems, and to support development of a core infrastructure for collaborative effectiveness research in mental health and completion of 4 research projects that leverage that infrastructure in specific clinical areas.
Funder: The National Institute of Mental Health

The Developing Evidence to Inform Decisions about Effectiveness-2 (DEcIDE-2) Network

The DEcIDE-2 network supports AHRQ's response to the Medicare Modernization Act's mandates for comparative effectiveness and safety research. The Network develops scientific evidence and methodologies about the outcomes, comparative clinical effectiveness, safety, and appropriateness of health care items and services for improving the quality, effectiveness, and efficiency of healthcare.
Funder: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality

RECENTLY COMPLETED

Data Mining Electronic Health Records for Drug Adverse Events

The objective of this project is to use the tree-based scan statistic and Bayesian gamma Poisson shrinkage to search for adverse drug events that are too rare to be detected        during phase three trials by using electronic health records of several million people enrolled in selected insurance plans in the HMO Research Network.
Funder: National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases

A Pilot Study for the Identification of Severe Cutaneous Reactions and Genomic Risk Factors in Users of Antiepileptics
In this pilot project we will develop and test a methodology to identify Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) cases hospitalized before 10/2008, test the positive and negative predictive values of the ICD9 codes for SJS and TEN introduced in 10/2008, and estimate the total number of SJS and TEN cases available for either a population-based pharmacogenetic or retrospective epidemiological study of SJS and TEN.

Feasibility of Studying Adverse Events Associated with Bisphosphonate Use

In this work, FDA is seeking information on the feasibility of conducting a study to examine the risk of atypical femoral fractures and/or esophageal cancer in osteoporotic   patients on long-term bisphosphonates therapy compared with osteoporotic patients not on bisphosphonate therapy.
Funder: United States Food and Drug Administration

HMO Research Network Centers for Education and Research in Therapeutics (CERTs 3)

The aims of this project are to enhance the ability of the HMO Research Network and collaborating health plans to advance therapeutics knowledge by leveraging data sources within a large, generalizable population and to develop and implement new methods for disseminating and promoting best therapeutic practices.
Funder: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality

Diabetes and Drug-Associated Hyperkalemia: Effect of Laboratory Monitoring

This study assessed associations between receipt and timing of potassium monitoring and occurrence of hyperkalemia-associated events in patients with diabetes prescribed ACEi, ARB and/or spironolactone.
Funder: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

Effectiveness of Immediate vs. Delayed Use of Metformin in New-Onset T2 Diabetes

This project addresses a series of research questions regarding the comparative effectiveness of immediate initiation of metformin monotherapy vs. delayed initiation of metformin or initiation of sulfonylurea monotherapy.
Funder: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

Medication Use in Pregnancy and Birth Outcomes Program (MEPREP)

The specific aim of this program is to develop infrastructure to enable ongoing study of medication use and outcomes in pregnancy.
Funder: United States Food and Drug Administration

Andrade SE, Scott PE, Davis RL, Li DK, Getahun DT, Cheetham TC, Raebel MA, Toh S, Dublin S, Pawloski P, Hammad TA, Beaton SJ, Smith DH, Dashevsky I, Haffenreffer K, Cooper WO. Validity of health plan and birth certificate data for pregnancy research. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety 2013; 22(1):7-15. PMID: 22753079

Herrinton LJ, Harrold LR, Liu L, Oullet-Hellstrom R, Raebel MA, Taharka A, Winthrop K, Solomon D, Curtis J, Lewis J, Saag K. Association between anti-TNF-α therapy and interstitial lung disease. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety 2013; 22(4): 394-402. PMID: 23359391

Brown JS, Petronis KR, Bate A, Zhang F, Dashevsky I, Kulldorff M, Avery TR, Davis RL, Chan KA, Andrade SE, Boudreau D, Gunter MJ, Herrinton L, Pawloski P, Raebel MA, Roblin D, Smith D, Platt R, Reynolds R. Drug adverse event detection in health plan data using the gamma poisson shrinker and comparison to the tree-based scan statistic. Pharmaceutics 2013; 5(1): 179-200. doi: 10.3390/pharmaceutics5010179

Toh S, Li Q, Cheetham TC, Cooper WO, Davis RL, Dublin S, Hammad TA, Li DK, Pawloski PA, Pinheiro SP, Raebel MA, Scott PE, Smith DH, Bobo WV, Lawrence JM, Dashevsky I, Haffenreffer K, Avalos LA, & Andrade SE. Prevalence and trends in the use of antipsychotic medications during pregnancy in the U.S., 2001-2007: a population-based study of 585,615 deliveries. Archives of Women's Mental Health 2013; 16(2):149-157. PMID:23389622

Kulldorff M, Dashevsky I, Avery TR, Chan AK, Davis RL, Graham D, Platt R, Andrade SE, Boudreau D, Gunter MJ, Herrinton LJ, Pawloski PA, Raebel MA, Roblin D, & Brown JS. Drug safety data mining with a tree-based scan statistic. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety 2013; Mar 20. [Epub ahead of print]. PMID: 23512870

Lawrence JM, Andrade SE, Avalos LA, Beaton SJ, Chiu VY, Davis RL, Dublin S, Pawloski PA, Raebel MA, Smith DH, Toh S, Wang JQ, Kaplan S, Amini T, Hampp C, Hammad TA, Scott PE, & Cheetham TC. Prevalence, Trends, and Patterns of Use of Antidiabetic Medications Among Pregnant Women, 2001-2007. Obstetrics and Gynecology 2013;121(1):106-114. PMID:23262934

Li Q, Andrade SE, Cooper WO, Davis RL, Dublin S, Hammad TA, Pawloski PA, Pinheiro SP, Raebel MA, Scott PE, Smith DH, Dashevsky I, Haffenreffer K, Johnson KE, & Toh S.  Validation of an algorithm to estimate gestational age in electronic health plan databases. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety 2013;Jan 21. [Epub ahead of print]. PMID: 23335117

Johnson KE, Beaton SJ, Andrade SE, Cheetham TC, Scott PE, Hammad TA, Dashevsky I, Cooper WO, Davis RL, Pawloski PA, Raebel MA, Smith DH, Toh S, Li DK, Haffenreffer K, & Dublin S. Methods of linking mothers and infants using health plan data for studies of pregnancy outcomes. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety 2013;Apr 18. [Epub ahead of print]. PMID: 23596095

Avalos LA, Chen H, Yang C, Andrade SE, Cooper WO, Cheetham CT, Davis RL, Dublin S, Hammad TA, Kaplan S, Pawloski PA, Raebel MA, Scott PE, Smith DH, Toh S, & Li DK. The Prevalence and Trends of Antiviral Medication Use During Pregnancy in the US: A Population-Based Study of 664,297 Deliveries in 2001-2007. Maternal and Child Health Journal 2013;Feb 19. [Epub ahead of print]. PMID: 23420306

Herrinton LJ, Liu L, Chen L, Harrold LR, Raebel MA, Curtis JR, Griffin MR, Solomon DH, Saag KG, Lewis JD. Association between anti-TNF-α therapy and all-cause mortality. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety 2012; 21(12): 1311-1320. PMID: 23065964

Kuntz JL, Johnson ES, Raebel MA, Petrik AF, Yang X, Thorp ML, Spindel SJ, Neil N, Smith DH. Epidemiology and healthcare costs of incident Clostridium difficile infections identified in the ambulatory setting. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 2012; 33(10):1031-1038. PMID: 22961023

Kahn MG, Raebel MA, Glanz JM, Riedlinger K, Steiner JF. A pragmatic framework for single-site and multi-site data quality assessment in electronic health record-based clinical research. Medical Care 2012; 50:S21-29. PMID: 22692254

Hansen C, Desai S, Bredfeldt C, Cheetham C, Gallagher M, Li DK, Raebel MA, Riedlinger K, Shay DK, Thompson M, Davis RL. A large, population-based study of 2009 pandemic influenza A virus subtype H1N1diagnosis during pregnancy and outcomes for mothers and neonates. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2012; 206(8): 1260-1268. PMID: 22859826

Nichols GA, Desai J, Elston Lafata J, Lawrence JM, OConnor PJ, Pathak R, Raebel MA, Reid R, Selby J, Silverman B, Steiner JF, Stewart WF, Vupputuri S, Waitzfelder BE, on behalf of the SUPREME-DM Study Group. Construction of a Multi-Site DataLink Using Electronic Health Records for the Identification, Surveillance, Prevention, and Management of Diabetes Mellitus: The SUPREME-DM Project. Preventing Chronic Dis 2012; 9(11): e110  PMID: 22677160

Kuntz JL, Johnson ES, Raebel MA, Petrik AF, Yang X, Thorp ML, Spindel SJ, Neil N, Smith, DH. Clostridium difficile infections, United States, 2007. Emerg Infect Dis 2012; 18:960-2. PMID: 22608207

Raebel MA. Hyperkalemia Associated with Use of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors and Angiotensin Receptor Blockers. Cardiovascular Therapeutics (2012); 30(3): e156-166.  PMID:21883995

Curtis LH, Weiner MG, Boudreau DM, Cooper WO, Daniel GH, Nair VP, Raebel MA, Beaulieu NU, Rosofsky R, Woodworth TS, Brown JS. Design considerations, architecture, and use of the Mini-Sentinel distributed data network. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. (2012); 21(S1): 23–31. PMID: 22262590

Andrade SE, Raebel MA, Boudreau D, Davis RL, Haffenreffer K, Pawloski PA, Toh S, Platt R. Automated data systems: Health maintenance organizations/health plans. In: Strom BL, Kimmel SE, Hennessy S, editors. Pharmacoepidemiology, 5th edition. Wiley-Blackwell; West Sussex, UK. 2012:163-188.

Habel LA, Cooper WO, Eet al. ADHD medications and risk of serious cardiovascular events in young and middle-aged adults. JAMA (e-pub)  PMID:22161946

Satterwhite CL, Yu O, Raebel MA. Detection of pelvic inflammatory disease: development of an automated case-finding algorithm using administrative data. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol (2011) (e-pub). PMID:22144849

Xu S, Shetterly S, Powers D, Raebel M, Tsai T, Ho M, Magid D. Extension of Kaplan-Meier methods in longitudinal observational studies with time-varying exposure. Value in Health. Published Online 2011. doi:10.1016/j.jval.2011.07.010

Scholes D, Yu O, Raebel MA et al. Improving automated case finding for ectopic pregnancy using a classification algorithum. Hum Reprod (2011); 26(11): 3163-3168.  PMID:21911435

Boudreau DM, Yu O, et al. Concomitant use of cholinesterase inhibitors and anticholinergics: prevalence and outcomes. J Am Geriart Soc (2011); 59(11): 2069-2076.  PMID:22091958

Andrade SE, Moore Simas TA, Boudreau D, Raebel MA, Toh S, Syat B, Dashevsky I, Platt R. Validation of algorithms to ascertain clinical conditions and medical procedures used during pregnancy. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf (2011); 20(11): 1168-1176.  PMID:22020902

Andrade SE, Davis RL, et al. Medication exposure in pregnancy risk evaluation program. Matern Child Health J (2011); (e-pub).  PMID:22002179

Raebel MA, Ellis JL, Carroll NM et al. Characteristics of patients with primary non-adherence to medications for hypertension, diabetes and lipid disorders. J Gen Intern Med (2011); (e-pub). PMID:21879374

Raebel MA, Carroll NM, Ellis JL, Schroeder EB, Bayliss EA. Importance of Early Non-adherence in Estimations of Medication Adherence. Ann Pharmacother (2011); 45(9): 1053-1060. PMID:21852598

Tjia J, Fischer SH, Raebel MA, Peterson D, Zhao Y, Gagne SJ, Gurwitz JH, Field TS. Baseline and follow-up laboratory monitoring of cardiovascular medications. Ann Pharmacother (2011); 45(9): 1077-1084. PMID:21852593

Carroll NM, Ellis JL, Luckett C, Raebel MA. Improving the Validity of Determining Medication Adherence from Electronic Health Record Medications Orders. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2011;18:717-20 PMID:21613641

Raebel MA. Hyperkalemia Associated with Use of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors and Angiotensin Receptor Blockers. Cardiovascular Therapeutics (2011); (e-pub).  PMID:21883995

Bhardwaja B, Carroll NM, Raebel MA, Chester EA, Korner EJ, Rocho BE, Brand DW, Magid DJ. Improving Prescribing Safety in Patients with Renal Insufficiency in the Ambulatory Setting: The Drug Renal Alert Pharmacy (DRAP) Program. Pharmacother (2011);31(4):346-356. PMID: 21449624

Davis RL, Eastman D, McPhillips H, Raebel MA, Andrade SE, Smith D, Ulcickas Yood M, Platt R. Risks of congenital malformations and perinatal events among infants exposed to calcium channel and beta-blockers during pregnancy. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf (2011); 20(2):138-4. PMID: 21254284

Smith DH, Raebel MA, Chan KA, Johnson ES, Petrik A, Weinstein J, Yang X, Feldstein A. An Economic Evaluation of a Laboratory Monitoring Program for Renin-Angiotensin System Agents. Medical Decision Making (2011);31:315-324. PMID: 21393563

Raebel MA, Smith ML, Saylor G, Wright LA, Cheetham C, Blanchette CM, Xu S. The positive predictive value of a hyperkalemia diagnosis in automated health care data. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf (2010);19(11):1204-8. PMID:20878650

Prevots DR, Shaw PA, Strickland D, Jackson LA, Raebel MA, Blosky MA, Montes de Oca R, Shea YR, Seitz AE, Holland SM, Olivier KN. Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Lung Disease Prevalence, Four Integrated Healthcare Delivery Systems. Am J Resp Crit Care Med. (2010);182:970-976. PMID:20538958

Tjia J, Field TS, Garber LD, Donovan JL, Kanaan AO, Raebel MA,  Yanfang Zhao Y, Fuller J, Fischer SH, Gagne SJ, Gurwitz JH. Development and pilot testing of guidelines to monitor high risk medications in the ambulatory setting. Am J Manag Care (2010) Jul;16(7):489-96.  PMID: 20645664

Raebel MA, Ross C, Xu S, Roblin DW, Cheetham C; Blanchette CM, Saylor G, Smith DH. Diabetes and Drug-Associated Hyperkalemia: Effect of Serum Potassium Monitoring. JGIM 2010;25(4)326-33. PMID: PMC2842549

Raebel MA, Ross C, Cheetham C, Petersen H, Saylor G, Smith DH, Wright LA, Roblin DW, Xu S. Increasingly restrictive definitions of hyperkalemia outcomes in a database study: Effect on incidence estimates. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2010;19(1):19-25. PMID: 19937982

Bayliss EA, Ellis JL, Delate T, Steiner JF, Raebel MA. Characteristics of Medicare Part D Beneficiaries Who Reach the Drug Benefit Threshold in Both of the First Two Years of the Part D Benefit. Med Care 2010; 48(3):267-72. PMID: 20125044

Xu S, Ross C, Raebel MA, Shetterly S, Blanchette C, Smith D. Use of stabilized inverse propensity scores as weights to directly estimate relative risk and its confidence intervals. Value in Health 2010; 13(2):273-77. PMID: 19912596

Harrold LR, Andrade, SE, Briesacher B, Raebel MA, Fouayzi H, Yood RA, Ockene IS. The dynamics of chronic gout treatment: medication gaps and return to therapy. Amer J Med 2010(1); 54-9. PMCID: PMC2813203

Price DW, Raebel M, Conner D, Wright L, Carroll NM. Pharmaceuticals from development to practice: Learnings from an online curriculum. Am J Managed Care 2009;15(12):e109-14.

Malone DC, Boudreau DM, Nichols GA, Raebel MA,  Fishman PA, Feldstein AC, Ben-Joseph RH, Okamoto LJ,  Magid DJ. Association of Cardiometabolic Risk Factors and Cardiovascular Events. Metab Syn Related Disorders 2009;7(6);585-94 PMID:19900158

Harrold LR, Andrade SE, Briesacher B, Raebel M, Fouayzi H, Yood RA, Ockene IS. Adherence with Urate-Lowering Therapies for the Treatment of Gout. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2009 Mar 27;11(2):R46. PMID: 19327147

Mazor KM, Sabin JE, Goff SL, Smith DH, Rolnick C, Roblin D, Raebel MA, Herrinton LJ, Gurwitz JH, Boudreau DM, Meterko V, Dodd KS, Platt R. Cluster randomized trials to study the comparative effectiveness of therapeutics: Stakeholders concerns and recommendations. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2009; 18(7):554-561. PMID: 19402030

Boudreau DM, Malone DC, Raebel MA, Fishman PA, Nichols GA, Feldstein AC, Hill A, Boscoe A, Ben-Joseph RH, Magid DJ, Okamoto LJ. Economic Burden of Cardiometabolic Risk Factors. Metab Syn Related Disorders 2009;7(4):305-14. PMID: 19558267

Smith DH. Feldstein AC, Perrin N, Yang X, Rix M, Raebel MA, Magid DJ, Simon SR, Soumerai SB. Improving Laboratory Monitoring of Medications: An economic analysis alongside a clinical trial. Am J Manag Care 2009;15(5):281-9. PMID: 19435396

Andrade SE, McPhillips H, Loren D, Raebel MA, Lane K, Livingston J, Boudreau D, Smith DH, Davis RL, Willy ME, McCune MK, Platt R. Antidepressant medication use and risk of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn. Pharmacepidemiol Drug Saf 2009;18(3):246-52. PMID: 19148882

Brown JS, Kulldorff M, Reynolds R, Petronis KR, Chan KA, David RL, Graham D, Andrade SE, Raebel MA, Herrinton L, Roblin D, Boudreau D, Smith D, Gurwitz JH, Gunter MJ, Platt R. Early adverse drug event signal detection within population-based health networks using sequential Methods: Key methodological considerations. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2009;18(3):226-34. PMID:17955500

Hartsfield CL, Korner EJ, Ellis JL, Raebel MA, Merenich J, Brandenburg N. Painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy in a managed care setting: patient identification, prevalence estimates, and pharmacy utilization patterns. Population Health Management 2008;11(6): 317-328. PMID:19108647

Klepser ME, Matzke G, Vivian E, Granberry M, Majerus T, Wiggins B, Hill-Zabala C, Weimert N, Raebel MA. Ethical Issues Related to Clinical, Translational, and Health System Research. Pharmacotherapy 2008;28(10):229e-243e.

Raebel MA, Delate T, Ellis JL, Bayliss EA. Effects of Reaching the Drug Benefit Threshold on Medicare Members’ Healthcare Utilization during the First Year of Medicare Part D. Medical Care 2008; 46 (10):1116-22.  PMID:18815534

Price DW, Raebel MA, Conner DA, Wright LA. Prescribers’ and Organizational Leaders’ Preferences for Education about Heavily-Marketed Drugs. Permanente J 2008;12(2):28-35. PMID:21364809

Andrade SE, Raebel MA, Brown J, Lane K, Livingston J, Boudreau D, Rolnick SJ, Roblin D, Smith DH, Dal Pan GJ, Scott PE, Platt R. Outpatient Use of Cardiovascular Drugs During Pregnancy. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2008;17(3):240-7. PMID: 18200619

Raebel MA, Chester EA, Brand DW, Magid DJ. Imbedding Research in Practice to Improve Medication Safety. 2008.  PMID:21249950

Brown JS, Kulldorff M, Chan KA, Davis RL, Graham D, Pettus PT, Andrade SA, Raebel MA, Herrinton L, Roblin D, Boudreau D, Smith D, Gurwitz JH, Gunter MJ, Platt R. Early detection of adverse drug events within population-based health networks:  Application of sequential testing methods. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2007;16(12):1275-84. PMID:19148879

Andrade SE, Raebel MA,  Brown J, Lane K, Livingston J, Boudreau D, Goodman M, Roblin D, Smith DH, Willy M, Staffa JA, Platt R. Use of Antidepressant Medications During Pregnancy:  A Multi-site Study. Am J Obstet Gyneco.l 2008;198(2):194.e1-5. PMID: 17905176

Raebel MA, Carroll NM, Kelleher JA, Chester EA, Berga S, Magid DJ. Randomized Trial to Improve Prescribing Safety during Pregnancy. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2007;14:440–450. PMID:17460126

Davis RL, Rubanowice D, McPhillips H, Raebel MA, Andrade SE, Smith D, Yood M, Platt R. Risks of congenital malformations and perinatal events among infants exposed to antidepressant medications during pregnancy. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2007;16:1086-94. PMID: 17729378

Mazor KM, Sabin J, Boudreau D, Goodman M, Gurwitz JH, Herrinton L, Raebel M, Roblin D, Smith D, Meterko V, Platt R. Cluster Randomized Trials: Opportunities and Barriers identified by Leaders of Eight Health Plans. Med Care 2007;45(10) Suppl 2:S29-S37. PMID: 17909379

Raebel MA, Charles J, Dugan J, Carroll NM, Korner EJ, Brand DW, Magid DJ. Randomized Trial to Improve Prescribing Safety among Ambulatory Elderly Patients. J Am Geriatr Soc 2007;55:977-985. PMID:17608868

Raebel MA, McClure DL, Simon SR, Chan KA, Feldstein A, Andrade SE, Lafata JE, Roblin D, Davis RL, Gunter MJ, Platt R. Laboratory monitoring of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers in ambulatory patients. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2007;16:55-64. PMID: 16470693

Raebel MA, McClure DL, Andrade SE, Chan KA, Davis RL, Feldstein AC, Gunter MJ, Lafata JE, Nelson WW, Simon SR, Roblin D, Platt R. Laboratory Evaluation of Potassium and Creatinine Among Ambulatory Patients Prescribed Spironolactone: Are We Monitoring for Hyperkalemia? Ann Pharmacother 2007;41:193-200. PMID: 17284506

Elston Lafata J, Simpkins J, Kaatz S, Horn JR, Raebel MA, Schultz L, Smith DH, Yood MU, and the HMO Research Network CERTs. Medical Record Documentation Regarding Drug-Drug Interactions in Ambulatory Care. What do medical records tell us about potentially harmful co-prescribing? Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf 2007 Jul;33(7):395-400. PMID: 17711141

Harrold LR, Saag KG, Yood RA, Mikuls TR, Andrade SE, Fouayzi H, Davis J, Chan KA, Raebel MA, Von Worley A, Platt R. Validity of gout diagnoses in administrative data. Arth Care Res 2007;57(1):103–8. PMID: 17266097

Raebel MA, Carroll NM, Simon SR, Andrade SE, Feldstein AC, Lafata JE, Nelson WW, Chan KA, Gunter MJ, Tolsma D, Platt R. Liver and thyroid monitoring in ambulatory patients prescribed amiodarone in 10 HMOs.  J Manag Care Pharm 2006:12(8):656-64. PMID: 17269844

Feldstein AC, Smith DH, Perrin N, Yang X, Rix M, Raebel MA, Magid DJ, Simon SR, Soumerai SB. Improved therapeutic monitoring with several interventions: a randomized trial. Arch Intern Med 2006;166:1848-54. PMID: 17000941

Harrold LR, Yood RA, Mikuls TR, Andrade SE, Davis J, Fuller J, Chan KA, Roblin D, Raebel MA, Von Worley A, Platt R, Saag KG. Sex differences in gout epidemiology, evaluation and treatment. Ann Rheum Dis. 2006;65:1368-72. PMID: 16644784

Palen TE, Raebel MA, Lyons E, Magid DJ. Evaluation of Laboratory Monitoring Alerts within a Computerized Physician Order Entry System for Medications Orders. Am J Manag Care 2006;12:389-95.

Andrade SE, Raebel MA, Morse AN, Davis RL, Chan KA,  Finkelstein JA, Fortman K, McPhillips H, Roblin D, Smith DH, Yood MU, Platt R, Gurwitz JH. Use of Prescription Medications with a Potential for Fetal Harm among Pregnant Women. Pharmaceoepidemiol Drug Saf 2006;15:546-54. PMID: 16586470

Hess LM, Raebel MA, Conner DA, Malone D. The Measurement of Adherence in Administrative Databases. Ann Pharmacother 2006;40:1280-88. Lafata JE, Schultz L, Simpkins J, Chan KA, Horn JR, Kaatz S, Long C, Platt R, Raebel MA, Smith DH, Xi H, Yood MU. Potential Drug-Drug Interactions in the Outpatient Setting. Medical Care. 2006;44(6): 534-541. PMID: 16708002

Allen LaPointe NM, Curtis LH, Chan KA, Kramer JM, Lafata JE, Gurwitz JH, Raebel MA, Platt R. Frequency of High-Risk Use of QT-Prolonging Medications. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2006;15:361-8. PMID: 16178046

Wagner AK, Chan KA, Dashevsky I, Raebel MA, Andrade SE, Lafata JE, Davis RL, Gurwitz JH, Soumerai SB, Platt R.  FDA Drug Prescribing Warnings: Is the Black Box Half Empty or Half Full? Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2006;15:369-86. PMID: 16294363

Raebel MA, Carroll NM, Andrade SE, Chester EA, Lafata JE, Feldstein A, Gunter MJ, Nelson WW, Simon SR, Chan KA, Davis RL, Platt R. Monitoring of Drugs with a Narrow Therapeutic Range in Ambulatory Care. Am J Manag Care 2006:12:268-74. PMID: 16686584

Raebel MA, Chester EA, Newsom EE, Lyons EE, Kelleher JA, Long C, Miller C, Magid DJ. Randomized Trial to Improve Laboratory Safety Monitoring of Drug Therapy in Ambulatory Patients. Pharmacother. 2006;26:619-26. PMID: 16637791

Raebel MA, McClure DL, Simon SR, Chan KA, Feldstein A, Gunter MJ, Harrold L, Nelson WW, Platt R. Serum Creatinine Monitoring During Allopurinol Therapy in Ambulatory Patients. Ann Pharmacother 2006;40:386-91. PMID: 16478808.

Authors reply to letter to the editor: Raebel MA, McClure DL, Simon SR. Author’s Reply to letter received about Serum Creatinine Monitoring During Allopurinol Therapy in Ambulatory Patients. Ann Pharmacotherapy 2006:40:1474.

Raebel MA, Lyons EE, Bodily MA, Chester EA, Kelleher JA, Long CL, Miller C, Magid DJ. Improving Laboratory Monitoring at Initiation of Drug Therapy: A Randomized Trial. Arch Intern Med 2005;165:2395-2401. PMID:16287769

Raebel MA, Lyons EE, Andrade SE, Chan KA, Chester EA, Davis RL, Ellis JL, Feldstein A, Gunter MJ, Lafata JE, Long CL, Magid DJ, Selby JV, Simon SS, Platt R. Laboratory Monitoring of High Risk Drugs at Initiation of Therapy in Ambulatory Care. J Gen Intern Med. 2005;20(12):1120-6.  PMID:16423101

Simon SR, Andrade SE, Ellis JL, Nelson WW, Gurwitz JH, Lafata JE, Davis RL, Feldstein A, Raebel MA. Baseline Laboratory Monitoring of Cardiovascular Medications in Elderly Health Maintenance Organization Enrollees.  J Am Geriatr Soc. 2005;53(12):2165-9. PMID: 16398903

Malone DC, Raebel MA, Porter JA, Lanty FA, Conner DA, Gay EC, Vogel EA, Merenich JA. Cost Effectiveness of Sibutramine in the Long-Term Outcomes of Sibutramine Effectiveness on Weight (LOSE Weight) Study: Evaluating the Role of Drug Therapy within a Weight Management Program. J Manag Care Pharm. 2005;11(6):458-68. PMID:15998163

Raebel MA. Witt DM, Carroll NM, Magid DJ. Warfarin Monitoring in Ambulatory Older Individuals receiving Antimicrobial Therapy. Pharmacotherapy 2005;25(8):1055-61. PMID: 16207095

Raebel MA, Ellis JL, Andrade SE. Evaluation of Gestational Age and Admission Data Assumptions Used to Determine Prenatal Drug Exposure from Administrative Data. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2005;14(12):829-836. PMID:15800957

Raebel MA. Treatment of Respiratory Infections in Ambulatory Managed Care Patients. Ann Pharmacother. 2005;39(4):699-705 PMID:15741412

Stille CJ, Andrade SE, Huang S, Nordin J, Raebel MA, Go AS, Chan KA, Finkelstein JA. Increased use of second-generation macrolide antibiotics for children in nine US health plans. Pediatrics. 2004;114:1206 -1211. PMID: 15520097

Raebel MA, Malone DC, Conner DA, Xu S, Porter JA, Lanty FA. Health services use and health care costs of obese and non-obese individuals. Arch Intern Med; 2004; 164:2135-40. PMID:15505127

Andrade SE, Gurwitz JH, Davis RL, Chan KA, Finkelstein FA, Fortman K, McPhillips H, Raebel MA, Roblin D, Smith DH, Yood MU, Morse AN, Platt R. Prescription Drug Use in Pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol; 2004; 191:398-407. PMID: 15343213

Calis KA, Hutchison LC, Elliott ME, Ives TJ, Zillich AJ, Poirier T, Townsend KA, Woodall B, Feldman S, Raebel MA. This paper was prepared by the 2001–2002 ACCP Public and Professional Affairs Committee. ACCP White Paper: Healthy People 2010: Challenges, opportunities, and a call to action for America’s pharmacists. Pharmacotherapy 2004;24(9):1241-94. PMID:15460187

Porter JA, Raebel MA, Conner DA, Lanty FA, Vogel EA, Gay EC, Merenich JA. The Long-Term Outcomes of Sibutramine Effectiveness on Weight (LOSE Weight) Study: Evaluating the Role of Drug Therapy within a Weight Management Program in a Group-Model Health Maintenance Organization. Am J Manag Care. 2004;10(6):369-76. PMID: 15209480

Long CL, Raebel MA, Price DW, Magid DJ. Compliance with Dosing Guidelines in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease. Ann Pharmacother. 2004;38:853-858. PMID: 15054147

McConnell KJ, Humphries TR, Raebel MA, Merenich JA, for the Clinical Pharmacy Cardiac Risk Service Study Group. Clinical pharmacy specialist implementation of lisinopril therapy in patients with coronary artery disease and diabetes mellitus. Pharmacotherapy 2003; 23:1564-1572. PMID:14695037

Finkelstein JA, Stille C, Nordin J, Davis R, Raebel MA, Roblin D, Go AS, Smith D, Johnson CC, Kleinman K, Chan KA, Platt R. Reduction in antibiotic use among US children, 1996-2000. Pediatrics 2003;112:620-627.  PMID:12949293

Kelleher JA, Raebel MA. Meningococcal vaccine use in college students. Ann Pharmacotherapy 2002;36:1776-1784. PMID:12398576

Putnam KG, Buist DS, Fishman P, Andrade SE, Boles M, Chase GA, Goodman MJ, Gurwitz JH, Platt R, Raebel MA, Chan KA. Chronic disease score as a predictor of hospitalization. Epidemiology. 2002 May;13(3):340-6. PMID:11964937

Platt R, Davis R, Finkelstein J, Go AS, Gurwitz JH, Roblin D, Soumerai S, Ross-Degnan D, Andrade S, Goodman MJ, Martinson B, Raebel MA, Smith D, Ulcickas-Yood M, Chan KA. Multicenter epidemiologic and health services research on therapeutics in the HMO Research Network Center for Education and Research on Therapeutics.Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2001 Aug-Sep;10(5):373-7. PMID:11802579

Lyman AE Jr, Raebel MA. Pregnancy categories of nicotine replacement products. Ann Pharmacotherapy 2001;35:1496-1497.

Clinical Practice Affairs Subcommittee A 1997-1999. (Maddux MS, Dong, BJ, Miller WA, Nelson KM, Raebel MA, Raehl CL, Smith WE). ACCP white paper: A vision of pharmacy's future roles, responsibilities, and manpower needs in the United States. Pharmacotherapy. 2000;20:991-1020.

McNicholl IR, Raebel, MA. Malaria epidemiology and economics in a pharmacist-managed international travel clinic. Pharmacotherapy. 1999;19(12):1363-8. PMID:10600084

Raebel MA, Ou BS. Rotavirus disease and its prevention in infants and children. Pharmacotherapy 1999;19(11):1279-95. PMID:10555934

Carter BL, Helling DK, Anderson J, Raebel M. Description of a formal affiliation between a school of pharmacy and a managed care organization. Journal of Managed Care Pharmacy. 1999;5:433-7.

Davis DD, Raebel MA. Ambulatory management of chemotherapy-induced fever and neutropenia in adult cancer patients. Annals of Pharmacotherapy. 1998;32:1317-23. PMID:9876814

Conboy K, Welage LS, Walawander CA, Duffy LC, Welliver RC, Zielezny MA, DiPiro JT, Raebel MA, Grasela TH.  Sepsis syndrome and associated sequelae inpatients at high risk for gram-negative sepsis.  Pharmacotherapy. 1995;15:66-77. PMID:7739948

Grasela TH, Goodwin SD, Pasko MT, Walawander CA, Raebel MA.  Use of antifungal therapy in hospitalized patients.  I.  Results prior to the marketing of fluconazole. Ann Pharmacotherapy.  1994:28:252-60. PMID:8173147

Task Force on Women's Health and Research Issues of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy.  (Sagraves R, Raebel MA, Jermain DM, O'Connell MB, Wermeling DP).  ACCP White Paper Women as Research Subjects.  Pharmacotherapy 1993;13:534-42.

Clinical Practice Affairs Committee of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy 1990-91.  (Graves Davidson T, O'Connell MB, Adams R, Moriarty V, Ranno A, Schultz N, Carter B, Raebel MA).  ACCP position statement: Guidelines for therapeutic interchange.  Pharmacotherapy 1993;13:252-6. 

Clem JR, Havemann DF, Raebel MA.  Insect repellent (n,n-diethyl-m-toluamide) cardiovascular toxicity in an adult.  Ann Pharmacotherapy 1993;27:289-93. PMID:8453162

Appleton MP, Kuehl TJ, Raebel MA, Adams HR, Pickens J, Koops B, Knight A, Gold W.  Magnesium sulfate versus phenytoin for seizure prophylaxis in pregnancy-induced hypertension.  Am J Obstet Gynecol 1991;165(4Pt1):907-13. PMID:1951552

Rynearson RR, Raebel MA, Engvall WR, Spiekerman MA, Hillis A, Gross D. Effect of Monoamine Oxidase Inhibition, Thiopental Anesthesia, and Electroconvulsive Shock (ECS). Convuls Ther 1990;6(2):153-159 PMID:11941057

Copeland CA, Raebel MA, Wagner SL. Pesticide in lanolin. JAMA 1989;262:613 (Letter). Copeland CA, Raebel MA, Wagner SL. Pesticide residue in lanolin. JAMA 1989;261:242(Letter). PMID:2909014

Raebel MA.  Potentiated anaphylaxis during chronic beta-blocker therapy. Drug Intell Clin Pharm 1988;22:720-1.

Grasela TH, Jr, Edward BA, Raebel MA, Sisca TS, Zarowitz BJ, Schentag JJ.  A clinical pharmacy-oriented drug surveillance network:  II. Results of a pilot project. Drug Intell Clin Pharm 1987;21:909-14. PMID:3678066

Clinical Practice Affairs Committee of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy 1985-86.  (Ereshefsky L, Barbarash RA, Crabtree BL, Dasta FJ, Kuehl PG, Lee M, Patterson JH, Raebel MA, Rich DS).  ACCP Statement:  Minimum practice standards for clinical pharmacy specialists with interpretation for organized health-care settings. Drug Intell Clin Pharm 1987;21:645-7.

Raebel MA. Hospital formulary policy changes. Hosp Formul 1986;21:882-4. Raebel MA and McDonald JB.  Twenty-four-hour single-container system for parenteral nutrient admixtures. Am J Hosp Pharm 1985;42:1355-8. PMID:3925769

Haas JD and Raebel MA.  Cephapirin interference with urine glucose testing systems. Am J Hosp Pharm 1984;19:257-67. PMID:6741966

Raebel MA and Black J. The caffeine controversy: What are the facts? Hospital Pharmacy 1984;19:257-67.

Raebel MA.  Nonequivalence of phenytoin capsules and tablets. N Engl J Med 1983;309:925 (letter). PMID:6888489

Raebel MA and Johnson JB. Enteral nutrition: Current concepts. US Pharmacist  1982;7(8):H5-H6, H10-H17.

Bradberry JC and Raebel MA. Naloxone infusion in narcotic overdose. Drug Intell Clin Pharm  1981;15:945-50. PMID:7338189

Waller ES and Raebel MA. Relapsing polychondritis in a Latin American man. Am J Hosp Pharm 1979;36:806-10. PMID:463901